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Welcome to this issue of Preventing Perinatal HIV Transmission: Field Update. You are receiving this newsletter because you expressed an interest in perinatal HIV prevention in hospitals or have signed up to receive it. This quarterly email newsletter connects its subscribers to news updates, trends, statistics, prevention programs, policy initiatives, tools, and useful practices relating to perinatal HIV prevention in U.S. hospitals.  The Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET), with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), produces this newsletter as a forum for information dissemination and for communication among and between hospital staff, HIV experts, and researchers.  


For more information on HRET’s Perinatal HIV Prevention project, please visit our web site.


If you have comments or suggestions for future issues of this newsletter, please contact Jennifer Reiter at

Voluntary HIV Testing Recommended for Patients in Healthcare Settings
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released on September 21 its recommendations on voluntary annual HIV screening for all patients ages 13-64, citing in part the success of routinely screening pregnant women to reduce mother-to-child transmission.  Previously, CDC guidelines had limited recommendations for routine counseling and testing to people at high risk for HIV, in acute-care settings in which HIV prevalence was greater than 1%, and all pregnant women.  Officials credit universal screening of pregnant women with helping to reduce the annual number of infants born with HIV to fewer than 240 from a peak of 1,650 in 2001.  To reduce mother-to-child transmission even more, the new recommendations call for a second HIV test for pregnant women in the third trimester in areas with high HIV prevalence among women of childbearing age, in facilities with at least one HIV diagnosis per 1,000 pregnant women screened, and for women with HIV risk factors or symptoms of acute HIV infection.  The guidance also simplifies testing procedures by no longer recommending pretest counseling and by eliminating the recommendation for separate, written consent for HIV testing. Instead, CDC recommends that consent for HIV testing be incorporated into general consent for medical care.

Visit CDC’s HIV Testing in Healthcare Settings web site for further supplementary materials including fact sheets, podcasts, FAQs, and more.

HRET Develops Comparison Chart of FDA-Approved Rapid HIV 1&2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA or EIAs)
The Perinatal HIV Prevention project at HRET recently released a chart comparing FDA-approved HIV 1 and 2 ELISA or EIA tests currently available for purchase. Click here to view the chart.  This chart is a companion to previously released information on rapid HIV screening tests.  If you would like further information on any of the products summarized on the charts, please contact the listed manufacturers directly. 

HRET Creates Map of Jurisdictions with Elevated Incidence of HIV or AIDS Among Women aged 15-45 Years (2004)

The CDC recently released its recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in healthcare settings.   On page nine of this document, there are 17 jurisdictions listed which, based on the latest data, have elevated incidence of HIV or AIDS among women aged 15-45.  HRET developed a map in order to encourage state, regional, and metropolitan association executives to work with their public health department and healthcare providers to ensure third trimester HIV testing among pregnant women.  Click here to access the map created by HRET on these jurisdictions.


CDC Launches Redesigned Perinatal Web Site

The CDC perinatal HIV prevention website has recently been completely overhauled.  Statistics and information have been updated, a greater emphasis on the national organizations has been added, and a new section for the general public provides valuable information to a wider audience about preventing mother to child transmission.  Visit their web site here.


NCCC Releases Updated State HIV Testing Laws Compendium

The National HIV/AIDS Clinicians’ Consultation Center (NCCC) has released its updated State HIV Testing Laws Compendium highlighted on its web site.  This compendium describes each state’s policies, rules, and regulations on HIV testing and provides state-by-state comparisons.  Understanding individual states’ HIV testing laws can be essential when providing testing and counseling for patients and in implementing HIV testing programs.  The compendium will become increasingly important as HIV testing becomes more routine.


Additional help on HIV testing and state laws can be obtained by calling the NCCC’s expert HIV Telephone Consultation Service (Warmline) at (800) 933-3413.  The NCCC also provides advice on occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens on its PEPline at (888) 448-4911, and advice on managing HIV in pregnant women and their infants on its Perinatal Hotline at (888) 448-8765. These free consultation services are for healthcare workers only.  Additional HIV training and education is available through the regional AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) on their web site. The NCCC is based at the University of California San Francisco/San Francisco General Hospital and is part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) AETC program, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


A more abridged compendium of state laws on HIV testing appears on the HRET web site as well.


New Resource on Counseling HIV-Infected Individuals Who Want to Have Children

This overview, authored by Arthur Ammann, MD, discusses issues to consider when providing reproductive counseling for HIV-infected concordant and discordant couples, including antiretroviral treatment, and the risk of reinfection or superinfection, risk reduction practices, adoption, sperm washing and insemination, and artificial insemination using an HIV-uninfected donor.  The document, which was developed by the UCSF Center for HIV Information, targets doctors/physicians, nurses, physician assistants/nurse practitioners, midwives, and counselors. 


To view the document, click here.


CDC Releases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines

These guidelines for the treatment of patients who have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were developed by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta during April 19-21, 2005.  The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2002 (MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-6]).  Included in these updated guidelines are an expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; new antimicrobial recommendations for trichomoniasis; additional data on the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; discussion of the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum protocolitis among men who have sex with men (MSM); expanded discussion of the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; the emergence of azithromycin resistant-Treponema pallidum; increasing prevalence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhea in MSM; revised discussion concerning the sexual  transmission of hepatitis C; postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault; and an expanded discussion of STD prevention approaches. 


To view the document, click here.



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